A Rya rug can be woven and knotted directly on a loom, or the backing can be woven separately on the loom and rya knots can be hand stitched afterwards onto the backing.
Here is a weaving draft and instructions for how to weave the backing fabric.
The rya rug canvas is generally woven using a twill threading and woven as Tabby. Sometimes a Rosepath threading is used instead if the weaver wishes to also create a pattern weave for the back of the rug.
The warp for a rya rug should be woven using either cotton rug warp or linen warp yarns. The warp needs to be strong in order to give enough structure to hold the knotted pile securely. You could stitch the knots onto any burlap or other type of fabric, but the backing will quickly wear out and all the work that you did in designing your rya would be gone.
Warp Yarn – Use either cotton rug warp or linen rug warp, approx. 800 – 1000 ypp
Sett: 4 EPI.
The warp is threaded using an 8 EPI reed, but skipping alternate dents, to create a space for the rya knots to be stitched through. Thread 2 warp ends in one dent, skip a dent, thread 2 ends in the next dent, skip a dent, repeat.
Use good quality 100% wool yarn if possible in a DK or Sport weight. I tend not to use heavy rug wools for the backing, because in Finland, the Rya was designed to be used as a bed covering or to be hung on the wall. In my opinion, the finished rug should feel soft and comfortable, not hard like a floor rug.
I also use a lighter weight of cotton or linen yarn to weave the rows of spacing where the rya knots will be tied. The rya knots do not get tied around this weft thread – but only around the warp threads. This yarn is used as a space maker, of where to tie the knots.
When you weave the rya on a floor loom, this spacer thread is not used. Rather, the knots are tied directly to the warp ends as you weave the rows.
Weave 4-6 shots of wool yarn, alternating with 2 shots of linen such as linen singles, 12/2 linen or cotton (8/2) yarn.
The spacing between the rya knot rows should be about 1/2 inch.
This will create a rya cloth that has a grid of 4 knots across per inch
by 2 rows in height per inch.
Carry the weft yarns up the side of the weaving as you change shots. These won’t show up too much once you have stitched the rya knots.
Sometimes I weave only 4 shots of wool yarn alternating with the 2 shots of linen/cotton if I am designing a rug where I want the knots to be closer together and am using 2 or 3 strands of rya wool rather than 3 or 4 for the rya knots.
Cut the warp off the loom and knot the warp ends securely.
For information about how to stitch the rya knots to the backing please see:
How to Stitch a Rya
Maurice Brassard carries a selection of linen and cotton rug warp, as well as 2 ply and 3 ply Briggs & Little wool yarns, which are lovely to use as Rya pile.
Camilla Valley ahs a good selection of Linen yarns. I generally use the 4/12 Belgian Linen.
George Weil has both cotton and linen warp yarns as well as DK weight natural wools from West Yorkshire Spinners.
Rya Rug Tapestry Books
Hand-made C.U.M. Rya Rugs
Techniques of Rya Knotting
Hooked rugs & ryas;: Designing patterns and applying techniques
Handgenoopte C.U.M. Rya Tapijten
Rya Rugs – Design and Make Your Own by Melinda Byrd Byrdcall Studio